The Asymmetry Thesis and the Diversity of "Invalid" Argument-Forms
argument-forms that make at least some of their instances valid, there is none that makes any of its instances invalid. To refute this thesis, a counterexample has been produced in the form of an argument-form whose premise-form's instances are all logically true and whose conclusion form's instances are all logically false. The purpose of this paper is to show that there are many more kinds of argument-forms that make some of their instances invalid and that, hence, are counterexamples refuting the Asymmetry Thesis.
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Betrand Russell, "The Value of Philosophy"
Plato, "Apology: Defence of Socrates"
Saint Anselm, "The Ontological Argument"
Saint Thomas Aquinas, "The Existence of God"
William Paley, "Natural Theology"
Blaise Pascal, "The Wager"
Bertrand Russell, "Why I Am Not a Christian"
David Hume, "Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion"
Gottfried Leibniz, "God, Evil and the Best of All Possible Worlds"
John Perry, "Dialogue on Good, Evil, and the Existence of God"
Edmund L. Gettier, "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?"
René Descartes, "Meditations on First Philosophy"
Christopher Grau, "Bad Dreams, Evil Demons, and the Experience Machine: Philosophy and The Matrix"
Robert Nozick, Excerpt from Philosophical Explanations
David Hume, "Of Scepticism with Regard to the Senses"
David Hume, "An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding"
W. C. Salmon, "The Problem of Induction"
Bertrand Russell, "The Argument from Analogy for Other Minds"
Gilbert Ryle, "Descartes's Myth"
David M. Armstrong, "The Nature of Mind"
Daniel Dennett, "Intentional Systems"
Paul M. Churchland, "Eliminative Materialism"
Frank Jackson, "What Mary Didn't Know"
A. M. Turing, "Computing Machinery and Intelligence"
John Searle, "Minds, Brains, and Programs"
John Perry, "A Dialogue on Personal Identity and Immortality"
Bernard Williams, "The Self and the Future"
Derek Parfit, "Personal Identity"
J. David Velleman, "So it Goes"
Daniel Dennett, "Where Am I?"
Roderick M. Chisholm, "Human Freedom and the Self"
Peter van Inwagen, "The Powers of Rational Beings: Freedom of the Will"
David Hume, "Of Liberty and Necessity"
Harry G. Frankfurt, "Alternate Possibilities and Moral Responsibility"
John Martin Fischer, "Responsiveness and Moral Responsibility"
Harry G. Frankfurt, "Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person"
Thomas Nagel, "Moral Luck"
Jeremy Bentham, "The Principle of Utility"
John Stuart Mill, "Utilitarianism"
E. F. Carritt, "Criticisms of Utilitarianism"
J. J. C. Smart, "Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism"
Bernard Williams, "Utilitarianism and Integrity"
Peter Singer, "Famine, Affluence, and Morality"
Immanuel Kant, "Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals"
J. David Velleman, "A Brief Introduction to Kantian Ethics"
Onora O'Neill, "Kantian Approaches to Some Famine Problems"
Thomas Nagel, "War and Massacre"
Rosalind Hursthouse, "Right Action"
John Rawls, "A Theory of Justice"
Robert Nozick, "Justice and Entitlement"
G. A. Cohen, "Where the Action Is: On the Site of Distributive Justice"
John Stuart Mill, "The Subjection of Women"
Debra Satz, "Markets in Women's Reproductive Labor"
Kwame Anthony Appiah, "Racisms"
Thomas Nagel, "The Absurd"
Albert Camus, "The Myth of Sisyphus"
Richard Taylor, "The Meaning of Human Existence"
Susan Wolf, "The Meanings of Lives"
Thomas Nagel, "Sexual Perversion"
Alan Goldman, "Plain Sex"
Anthony Brueckner and John Martin Fischer, "Why is Death Bad?"
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